In the realm of international commerce, a well-crafted global branding strategy is paramount for businesses aiming to establish a strong market presence across borders. The complexity of aligning such a strategy with international trademark laws cannot be overstated, as it requires a nuanced understanding of legal frameworks that vary significantly from one jurisdiction to another. This guide is designed for business leaders, marketing professionals, and legal experts who are tasked with navigating the intricate landscape of global trademarks. Its purpose is to provide a comprehensive roadmap for developing and implementing a branding strategy that respects international trademark laws while promoting brand consistency and recognition worldwide. With a focus on legal compliance and strategic brand management, we will delve into the principles of international trademark laws, the planning of global trademarks, and the execution of registration processes, all the while ensuring that your brand's integrity is maintained across diverse markets.

Developing a global branding strategy that aligns with international trademark laws

Embarking on the journey of global trademark strategy in brand expansion necessitates a comprehensive grasp of the diverse landscape of international trademark laws. The protection and enforcement of trademarks are subject to the specific regulations of each country or region, which can significantly influence a company's strategy to safeguard its brand identity worldwide.

The concept of territoriality is central to understanding trademark law, which posits that the rights and protections afforded by a trademark are confined to the borders of the country where it is registered. This implies that securing a trademark in one nation does not automatically extend its protection to other countries. Additionally, jurisdictions may adopt either a first-to-file or a first-to-use policy. For instance, China prioritizes the first entity to file for a trademark, while the United States recognizes the rights of the first party to use the mark in commerce.

For businesses seeking protection in multiple countries, the Madrid System presents a streamlined approach, allowing for a single application to cover member countries. However, it's crucial to recognize that this system does not create a universal trademark but rather a collection of individual rights that must adhere to each nation's rules and potential objections. Moreover, not all countries participate in the Madrid Protocol, necessitating separate applications for trademark protection in those nations.

International conventions, such as the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property and the TRIPS Agreement, under the auspices of the World Trade Organization, establish legal frameworks and minimum standards for intellectual property rights that member countries must follow.

Regional trademark systems also exist to facilitate broader coverage. The European Union Trade Mark (EUTM) system, for example, allows for a single registration to span all EU member states. In Africa, organizations like ARIPO and OAPI offer avenues for registering trademarks recognized across multiple countries on the continent.

A deep understanding of these international systems and their respective legal environments is crucial for crafting a global branding strategy that is not only robust but also compliant with the varied trademark laws. It is this knowledge that will ensure your brand's intellectual property remains well-protected in all markets of interest or potential expansion.

Trademark Principles and Variations Across Jurisdictions

Trademarks universally serve as distinctive signs that differentiate the products or services of one business from those of another. However, the principles that underpin trademark law can differ markedly from one country to the next.

The use in commerce principle is prevalent in many jurisdictions, where the rights to a trademark are earned through its active use in the marketplace. This encompasses activities such as sales, advertising, and distribution that are associated with the brand. On the other hand, some countries prioritize the first-to-file principle, awarding rights to whoever lodges a trademark application first, regardless of actual use.

Distinctiveness is another principle where international variations are pronounced. Some jurisdictions require a trademark to be inherently distinctive or to have acquired distinctiveness through use, while others may have more relaxed standards for what qualifies as distinctive.

The extent of legal protection for unregistered trademarks also varies. In common law countries like the United States, unregistered trademarks may enjoy certain rights under common law. In contrast, civil law countries typically offer protection primarily through registered rights, with unregistered marks receiving little to no recognition.

Trademark application examination processes are not standardized globally. Some countries conduct a substantive examination, scrutinizing applications for distinctiveness and potential conflicts with existing rights. Others may perform a formal examination, focusing on the application's accuracy and completeness without assessing qualitative aspects.

Furthermore, the procedures for third parties to oppose trademark registrations differ, with some jurisdictions allowing opposition before registration and others only after.

The recognition of non-traditional trademarks, such as colors, sounds, and shapes, also varies widely. Some jurisdictions are receptive to these types of marks, while others impose stringent requirements or do not recognize them at all.

Given this diversity, it is imperative for companies to customize their trademark strategies to align with the legal nuances of each jurisdiction where they seek protection. For example, in regions where registration takes precedence over use, it is crucial to file promptly to secure trademark rights against potential competitors or squatters.

In sum, a nuanced understanding of these principles is the cornerstone of a legally robust and strategically sound global branding strategy. Navigating the complexities of international trademark laws requires a keen awareness of the unique requirements and protections within each jurisdiction to ensure comprehensive brand security.

Strategically Planning Your Global Trademark

Embarking on international brand expansion demands a strategic approach that harmonizes with the diverse tapestry of global trademark laws. The essence of this strategy lies in aligning the brand's commercial goals with the legal frameworks across different territories to ensure robust and enforceable trademark rights on a worldwide scale.

Commence by pinpointing key markets that align with your business objectives. Determine where your existing and prospective customers are located and which regions are poised for growth. This targeted approach helps in judiciously distributing resources for trademark registrations.

Adapting your brand to resonate with various cultural landscapes is imperative, steering clear of conflicts with pre-existing trademarks. A brand name that is well-received in one culture may carry negative implications in another. Engaging in a thorough linguistic and cultural vetting process is essential to ensure your brand is perceived positively in diverse markets.

Reflect on the dynamics of your industry and the nature of your products. Brands in rapidly evolving sectors or those susceptible to imitation need a more comprehensive protective strategy. For instance, the tech and fashion industries necessitate a nimble trademark approach that can adapt alongside the brand's evolution.

Delve into the protection levels each jurisdiction offers. Some territories grant rights based on registration, while others recognize rights through usage. The timing of your trademark filings should be meticulously planned to maximize protection.

Also, consider the potential benefits of regional or international treaties, such as the Madrid Protocol, which streamlines the process of filing a single application for trademark protection in multiple countries.

Craft a registration timeline that dovetails with your market entry strategy. The duration of the trademark registration process varies by jurisdiction, and in some cases, having a registered trademark prior to market entry is crucial. Conversely, establishing a market presence before registration can be beneficial in other regions. This timeline should be seamlessly integrated with your marketing initiatives and product launches to ensure a unified brand rollout.

Strategic planning for global trademarks is an iterative process that demands ongoing attention, ready to pivot as your brand grows and as trademark laws evolve. By incorporating a proactive and adaptable mindset into your global branding strategy, you can protect the integrity and value of your brand across international borders.

Conducting Comprehensive Trademark Searches

Prior to submitting a trademark application in any territory, it is vital to perform an exhaustive search to ascertain the mark's availability and uncover any potential legal impediments. This proactive step is crucial to sidestep infringement and opposition, which could lead to expensive rebranding or legal battles.

The search should encompass all relevant classes of goods and services associated with the trademark. Since trademark rights are generally organized and enforced based on an international classification system, it's important to scrutinize all related categories for any marks that might be similar or identical.

Initiate with a basic search in the trademark databases of your target jurisdictions, often accessible online via the respective trademark office's website. While this preliminary search offers initial insights, it is merely the first step in a comprehensive assessment.

For markets with unfamiliar legal systems or languages, enlist the expertise of professional search firms. These specialists possess the skills and resources to conduct thorough searches, including the assessment of phonetic similarities and the importance of design elements in non-traditional trademarks.

To conduct a thorough search, also examine business registries, domain name registrations, and online marketplaces, particularly in territories where the first to use principle prevails. Such investigations can reveal unregistered but actively used trademarks that could present conflicts.

Scrutinize the history of existing marks to gain strategic insights into the competitive landscape, including past legal disputes and their current legal standing.

When considering regions governed by international agreements, extend your search to include international registers, such as the WIPO Global Brand Database, to identify trademarks with multi-country protection.

Remember, a clear trademark search does not equate to guaranteed registration but significantly reduces the risks of infringement and provides confidence before making substantial branding investments.

Lastly, it's prudent to update your trademark search periodically, particularly before filing an application and launching branding campaigns, to ensure no new conflicting marks have been introduced since your initial search.

A meticulous trademark search is a linchpin in circumventing legal entanglements and ensuring that your global branding strategy is poised for success, with enforceable trademark rights across the international spectrum.

Executing the Trademark Registration Process

Embarking on the trademark registration journey is a pivotal move in fortifying your brand's global presence. With a thorough trademark search behind you, the focus shifts to navigating the registration landscape with precision and foresight.

Initiating this phase involves submitting a trademark application to the relevant authorities in each target market. The application must be meticulously prepared to comply with the diverse requirements of each jurisdiction. This includes a precise depiction of the mark, an itemization of associated goods or services as per the Nice Classification, and comprehensive applicant details.

It's crucial to define your goods and services with precision to garner expansive protection, steering clear of overextension that could trigger legal pushback. Adapting your applications to align with local legal frameworks may require translation into the jurisdiction's official language and adjusting to local classification systems.

To enhance efficiency and cost-effectiveness, consider leveraging the Madrid Protocol for jurisdictions under its umbrella. This treaty simplifies the filing process, enabling a unified application to extend protection across multiple countries. Adherence to the specific provisions of such international arrangements is essential.

Following submission, your application will undergo a rigorous examination for conformity with local trademark laws, including checks for uniqueness and potential conflicts with existing trademarks. Addressing any objections from trademark examiners with precision and legal acumen is paramount. Engaging with legal experts who are well-versed in the nuances of the applicable trademark laws can be invaluable during this stage.

In regions where the registration process includes public notification and opposition phases, it's imperative to remain vigilant. Be ready to uphold your claim to the trademark, drawing on evidence of its distinctiveness or prior use, to counter any third-party objections.

Throughout this process, scrupulous record-keeping is your ally. Documenting every interaction, submission, and ruling can prove indispensable, particularly when facing opposition or other hurdles.

When third-party challenges emerge, a strategic blend of negotiation, coexistence agreements, or litigation may be necessary. A proactive stance in these scenarios is critical to circumvent delays and affirm your trademark rights.

The culmination of a successful registration process is the acquisition of a registration certificate, a testament to your legal rights and a cornerstone for future enforcement and business ventures.

Navigating the complexities of international trademark registration demands strategic planning, legal precision, and an agile response to the challenges that arise. By adhering to these principles, businesses can establish a robust foundation for safeguarding their intellectual property on the global stage.

Application, Documentation, and Responding to Challenges

The trademark application is your formal bid for brand protection within a chosen territory. Ensuring this process unfolds without hitches hinges on the thoroughness of your documentation. The application must be populated with all pertinent details, including a graphical representation of the mark and a list of goods and services categorized under the Nice Classification.

Your application dossier should encompass:

  • Applicant's contact details and, if necessary, those of the legal representative.
  • A graphical representation of the mark, inclusive of any non-traditional elements like colors or sounds.
  • An itemized list of goods and services to be trademarked, following the Nice Classification.
  • Evidence of fee payment.

Post-submission, it's essential to keep a watchful eye on the application's progress. Examiners may issue office actions, which can range from procedural to substantive concerns, such as potential conflicts with existing trademarks or questions about the mark's distinctiveness.

Addressing these challenges requires a well-reasoned response, potentially supplemented by evidence of the mark's acquired distinctiveness or adjustments to the application to mollify the examiner's concerns.

Following preliminary acceptance, the mark will be published for opposition, opening a window for third parties to raise concerns based on prior rights or potential consumer confusion. Be prepared to enter discussions or assert your rights through well-crafted arguments or hearings.

In certain cases, you can claim an earlier priority date based on a previous application in another jurisdiction. This requires prompt and precise submission of priority documents within six months of the initial filing.

Should your application advance to registration unopposed, meticulous documentation of the certificate and related communications is vital. Conversely, if you encounter opposition, this documentation becomes a critical asset in any legal discourse or negotiation.

Consistent record-keeping across all applications, office actions, and communications with trademark offices is indispensable. These records not only facilitate responses to immediate challenges but also bolster future enforcement actions, underscoring the legitimacy of your trademark claims.

Mastering the application process, maintaining comprehensive documentation, and adeptly handling challenges are integral to securing and upholding your international trademark rights.

Enforcing and Protecting Your International Trademarks

Once you've secured international trademark registrations, the real work begins: safeguarding your brand's integrity across diverse markets. Vigilance is the watchword in this phase, as you must be proactive to ensure that your trademarks are not diluted or infringed upon.

The cornerstone of enforcement is a robust monitoring system. This involves scrutinizing the market and various trademark databases for signs of infringement—be it through counterfeit goods or unauthorized use of similar marks. While technology can automate surveillance to some extent, the nuanced understanding of local markets is invaluable, particularly in regions where infringement is rampant.

When an infringement is spotted, a measured assessment is crucial. Consider the infringement's potential to confuse consumers, weaken your brand, or tarnish your reputation. Prioritize your response based on the infringement's impact, taking into account the location, distribution channels, and the nature of the contested goods or services.

Addressing infringement often starts with a cease-and-desist letter, a diplomatic yet firm request for the infringer to halt their unauthorized use. If this initial step doesn't yield results, or if the infringement is severe, legal proceedings may be necessary.

The nature of legal recourse—whether administrative, civil, or criminal—varies by jurisdiction. Engaging local legal experts can help you navigate these waters, ensuring that your actions are both effective and compliant with local laws.

Another enforcement avenue involves working with customs and border protection agencies. Many countries allow trademark holders to register their marks with customs to prevent the import or export of counterfeit goods.

International treaties, such as ACTA, offer additional enforcement mechanisms. Utilize these agreements to bolster your efforts and foster cooperation with international authorities.

Lastly, empower your network—employees, distributors, licensees, and consumers—with knowledge about trademark protection. Their ability to identify and report infringements can significantly amplify your enforcement capabilities.

In sum, protecting your international trademarks is a dynamic and ongoing endeavor. By staying vigilant, prioritizing risks, and acting decisively, you can defend your brand's integrity and maintain its global standing.

Monitoring Your Trademarks and Enforcing Rights

The linchpin of trademark enforcement is a comprehensive monitoring strategy. This proactive measure is designed to catch potential infringements early, preventing them from eroding your brand's value.

Develop a system for ongoing surveillance that tracks new trademark applications, domain name registrations, and unauthorized commercial use. Leveraging specialized monitoring services can be a game-changer, providing timely alerts when marks that could be mistaken for yours appear on the scene.

When a potential infringement surfaces, it's essential to assess its scope and the threat it poses to your brand's reputation and customer loyalty. Your response should be proportionate to the infringement's gravity, ranging from a cease-and-desist letter to initiating legal action.

The approach to enforcement should be sensitive to the local context. Some regions may respond better to a less confrontational initial contact, while others may necessitate a more assertive stance. Swift and decisive action is critical in deterring future infringements and preserving your brand's reputation.

It's imperative to have a deep understanding of both global treaties and the specific legal landscapes of the countries where your trademarks are registered. Partner with legal professionals who can help you execute enforcement actions that are respectful of local laws and practices.

In the face of legal challenges, be prepared with thorough documentation of your trademark rights and evidence of infringement. Such diligence can be decisive in achieving a favorable resolution.

Integrate your enforcement actions into a broader strategy that reflects your business goals and upholds the principles of fair competition. By doing so, you can ensure that your brand remains respected and its value undiminished, no matter where in the world it reaches.

Maintaining an International Trademark Portfolio

The stewardship of an international trademark portfolio is a dynamic and continuous endeavor, pivotal in preserving the legal safeguards and value of your brand's trademarks across various global markets. This involves a proactive approach, including periodic audits, timely renewals, and strategic adjustments that reflect the evolving landscape of your business operations and market presence.

Conducting regular audits is a cornerstone of portfolio management, ensuring that your trademarks accurately represent your current offerings. This is particularly important as your business evolves, potentially expanding into new product lines or services. Vigilance here is key, as trademarks that are not actively used as registered can be subject to cancellation in numerous jurisdictions.

Renewal deadlines are a critical aspect of trademark management and are not uniform across countries. It is imperative to be well-versed in these timelines and to proactively manage them. While some countries may offer grace periods for late renewals, it is prudent to avoid reliance on such provisions due to the potential for increased fees and the peril of missing the extended deadline altogether.

In certain markets, demonstrating proof of use is a prerequisite for maintaining your trademark. Be prepared to assemble evidence, such as product images bearing the mark, promotional content, and sales data, to affirm the mark's ongoing use. This documentation is not only crucial for upholding your trademark in the face of legal challenges but also for ensuring its continued enforceability.

For those managing extensive portfolios, trademark management software can be an invaluable tool, centralizing important data, tracking deadlines, and organizing documents. This technological aid streamlines the management process and mitigates the risk of human error.

Strategic portfolio management also entails making informed decisions about which trademarks to maintain and which may be allowed to lapse. Evaluate the significance of each mark within its respective market, focusing on areas where your brand has a robust presence or intends to expand. This strategic approach ensures that resources are allocated wisely and that maintenance efforts are both efficient and effective.

Maintaining meticulous records is universally recommended, despite varying statutory requirements. Keeping detailed records of registration certificates, renewal documentation, and any licensing agreements fortifies your ability to enforce your rights and is indispensable in the event of litigation or dispute resolution.

Stay vigilant regarding changes in trademark laws, both internationally and locally, that could impact your portfolio. Guidance from trademark attorneys and communications from local authorities can provide valuable insights into such changes. Staying informed and adapting your management practices accordingly is essential for the longevity and strength of your international trademark portfolio.

Maintenance, Renewal, and Portfolio Management

The essence of sustaining an international trademark portfolio lies in meticulous maintenance and timely renewal practices. Each jurisdiction has its own set of renewal timelines, and it is essential to navigate these with precision to prevent any gaps in protection.

Active use of the trademark is a critical component of maintenance. In some regions, a prolonged period of non-use can render a trademark susceptible to cancellation. Therefore, it is crucial to document the use of the mark, including dates and instances of advertising, packaging, or sales transactions, to affirm the mark's validity.

The renewal process typically requires the submission of a formal application accompanied by the requisite fee before the current registration term concludes. Some jurisdictions may also request additional proof of use at the time of renewal. Employing deadline tracking systems is a strategic way to ensure you are reminded to initiate the renewal process in a timely manner.

Effective portfolio management transcends routine maintenance and renewal. It involves strategic analysis and decision-making concerning the growth or reduction of your trademark assets in line with your business objectives. This may include weighing the costs and benefits of maintaining registrations, exploring new market opportunities, or deciding to discontinue marks that no longer serve a purpose. Prioritizing trademarks based on their commercial impact and enforcement potential ensures that your resources are invested wisely, keeping your portfolio robust yet streamlined.

Regular reassessment of your portfolio is crucial to align with business expansion, market exit strategies, or shifts in the competitive environment. This ensures that your portfolio remains composed of assets that are integral to your business strategy.

Continuity is key in portfolio management. Whether responsibilities are designated internally or to an external trademark counsel, clear assignment ensures that your trademark rights are consistently protected against inadvertent lapses.

An organized approach to maintenance, renewal, and portfolio management is vital in mitigating the risk of trademark cancellation due to oversight. By managing your trademarks as strategic business assets, you enhance the resilience and scope of your brand's international presence.

Compliance and Legal Best Practices in Global Branding

Navigating the complexities of international branding demands a keen understanding of trademark laws to protect a brand's integrity and market value. A robust strategy that is in harmony with global trademark regulations is essential to minimize legal exposures.

Awareness and adherence to the advertising and marketing laws specific to each country where your brand is active are critical. These laws influence how a trademark is utilized in public domains, including labeling, packaging, and promotional activities.

To ensure legal compliance, consider the CLEAR method:

  1. Consistency: Maintain uniform application of your trademarks in every market. This includes logos, taglines, and color schemes, which should be reflective of your registered trademarks to avoid legal challenges due to non-use or inconsistencies.
  2. Licensing: In licensing agreements, delineate precise terms that uphold quality control and adherence to brand guidelines. This approach safeguards your brand's reputation and ensures that licensees' use of the mark does not compromise your trademark rights.
  3. Education: Inform your workforce, partners, and distributors about the critical nature of trademark laws and the necessity for strict compliance. Ongoing education can deter accidental infringements and uphold a culture of compliance.
  4. Audit: Implement regular audits of your brand's international operations to ensure adherence to local trademark laws and confirm that any third-party usage is consistent with licensing agreements, thereby protecting your rights.
  5. Risk Management: Proactively identify and address potential legal risks by keeping abreast of changes in trademark laws and practices internationally. This foresight can help prevent disputes and eliminate the need for legal action after the fact.

For brands with a global footprint, understanding and implementing anti-counterfeiting strategies is paramount. Collaborate with local enforcement and international organizations to leverage anti-counterfeiting tools. When possible, register your trademarks with customs agencies to enable them to halt the transit of counterfeit goods.

In the process of expanding your brand, thorough due diligence on potential partners and acquisitions is crucial to uncover any latent trademark issues that could impact compliance or brand value.

In today's digital marketplace, it's also vital to align your domain name strategy with your trademark registration strategy to prevent cybersquatting and protect your online brand identity. Address domain name disputes through ICANN's dispute resolution policy or equivalent mechanisms to maintain your brand's digital presence.

Incorporating these compliance and legal best practices into your global branding strategy is foundational for mitigating risks and fostering a secure, respected international brand presence.

International Licensing, Assignment, and Anti-Counterfeiting Measures

Crafting a global branding strategy requires meticulous attention to licensing, trademark assignment, and the implementation of anti-counterfeiting protocols to preserve brand control and authenticity.

International Licensing: Licensing can broaden a brand's influence through agreements that allow others to use the trademark within defined parameters. It's crucial to draft comprehensive contracts that specify usage scope, territorial rights, quality control, and enforcement duties. These agreements must be tailored to comply with the specific legal requirements of each territory, including competition and antitrust laws.

Assignment: Trademark assignments may occur during significant corporate transitions such as sales, mergers, or reorganizations. It's imperative that these assignments are documented meticulously, with a clear transfer of associated rights. Officially registering the assignment with the appropriate international authorities is often required to legally uphold the trademark's protection.

Anti-Counterfeiting Measures: Counterfeiting can significantly affect revenue and erode consumer confidence. To combat this, record your trademarks with national customs authorities where this service is available, empowering them to detain suspect merchandise. Forge partnerships with law enforcement and participate in initiatives aimed at curbing counterfeit trade. Employing product authentication technologies or unique identifiers can also aid in distinguishing authentic goods from counterfeit ones.

In regions with high counterfeiting activity, proactive steps might include regular market surveys and coordinated raids with local law enforcement. Engaging with global organizations like WIPO and the IACC can provide additional support and resources.

For digital enforcement, monitor online marketplaces for counterfeit offerings and utilize their takedown procedures. Keeping a vigilant eye on domain names and engaging in UDRP processes can also help tackle cybersquatting and online infringement.

Balancing these aspects of international licensing, assignments, and anti-counterfeiting efforts is intricate yet essential for a brand's global success. By ensuring proper contractual agreements, legal compliance, and proactive defense strategies, your brand can flourish internationally while maintaining its value and reputation.

1. What is the importance of understanding international trademark laws in a global branding strategy?

Understanding international trademark laws ensures businesses do not infringe on existing trademarks in foreign markets. This legal knowledge protects the company from costly lawsuits and potential damage to its brand reputation (Chhaochharia, 2020).

2. How does aligning with international trademark laws impact the brand's perception?

When a brand aligns with international trademark laws, consumers perceive it as legitimate and trustworthy. The alignment demonstrates respect for the legal systems of the markets in which the company operates, enhancing corporate reputation (Schneider, 2018).

3. Can a two-tiered international trademark strategy be beneficial for global branding?

Yes, a two-tiered international trademark strategy accommodates both global consistency and local customization. This allows a brand to maintain its central identity while catering to local cultural nuances and legal requirements (Lewin, 2019).

4. How can businesses ensure their branding strategy aligns with international trademark laws?

Businesses can consult with international trademark lawyers or use global intellectual property service providers. Effective market research, including comprehensive trademark searches, ensures alignment with international legalities (Smith, 2020).

5. What are the potential risks of not complying with international trademark laws in global branding?

Noncompliance risks include legal disputes, damage to the brand's image, financial loss from litigation, and loss of marketing investment if rebranding becomes required due to unauthorized trademark use (Lee, 2020).

6. Are all countries' trademark laws the same?

No, trademark laws vary significantly across countries. International agreements provide some standardization, but companies must still be aware of unique requirements in each market they enter (Roberts, 2021). References: - Chhaochharia, A. (2020). The role of culture and law in branding. Journal of Cultural Marketing Strategy, 5(1), 28-40. - Schneider, F. (2018). Trademarks and Brands – An interdisciplinary critique. Journal of Brand Management, 16(2), 117–133. - Lewin, J. (2019). Global trademark strategy: Risks and rewards. World Trademark Review, 4(6), 20-24. - Smith, R. (2020). Legal dream team: The importance of comprehensive trademark search. Intellectual Asset Management, 103(2), 24–29. - Lee, M. (2020). Trademark infringement and enforcement. Intellectual Property Quarterly, 3, 240–261. - Roberts, J. (2021). The International Trademark Association: Champion of trademarks. Journal of Intellectual Property Rights, 16(1), 54-59.