In this article, you will learn about the importance of trademarks, the registration process, and how to protect your brand from infringement. It covers the types of trademarks, eligibility criteria, and the importance of conducting trademark searches. The article also discusses the consequences and legal remedies for trademark infringement and offers best practices to ensure a unique and distinctive trademark for your business.Trademarks are essential assets for businesses, as they protect the brand's reputation, products, and services. A trademark is a mark or symbol that distinguishes and identifies products or services offered by one business from those offered by others. It can include words, logos, phrases, symbols, and designs. These marks are legally registered to ensure the exclusive use of the trademark owner to identify their products and services. This article will discuss the importance of previous trademark registrations, their associated rights and benefits, and the process of registering a trademark.
Trademark registration is essential for businesses because it offers comprehensive protection and ensures exclusive use of the selected mark. Once registered, the trademark owner has the exclusive right to use the mark to identify their services or products in the designated territory. This can safeguard the brand's reputation, as registering a trademark prevents competitors from using similar marks to promote their services and products.
In addition, registering a trademark enables legal action against potential infringers. If someone infringes upon a registered trademark, the owner has the right to file a lawsuit and claim damages. A registered trademark serves as proof of ownership and can deter potential infringers from copying or using identical or similar marks.
Lastly, registering a trademark contributes to the overall value of your business, as it establishes ownership and creates brand recognition. It is a valuable asset when selling or licensing your business, as it provides a clear indication of your brand's success, reputation, and market presence.
Trademark registration offers several exclusive rights and benefits to the trademark owner, including:
Registering a trademark requires a series of steps, including research, application filing, examination, publication, and, ultimately, approval. The process generally includes the following:
Remember that trademark registration is territorial, meaning it is only valid in the jurisdiction where it is registered. For global protection, consider registering your trademark in multiple countries through international registration systems, such as the Madrid Protocol or the European Union Trademark.
A trademark is a distinctive sign, symbol, word, phrase, logo, or a combination thereof, that identifies the source of a given good or service and distinguishes it from other competitors in the market. It represents the reputation and goodwill of a brand, ensuring that consumers can easily identify and associate the mark with a specific company, product, or service. Trademarks are protected by intellectual property laws and provide the trademark owner with exclusive rights to use, reproduce, and enforce their mark.
One crucial aspect of trademarks is that they must be unique and capable of distinguishing specific products or services from those of another company. Moreover, a trademark must not deceive or confuse consumers about the source, quality, or characteristics of the goods and services it represents.
A registered trademark affords the owner several benefits, such as legal protection against unauthorized use or infringement by third parties, the possibility to license or franchise the mark for commercial exploitation, and the right to use or display the ® symbol, indicating its registered status. Registering a trademark also enables the owner to act against counterfeit products or services that may harm the brand's reputation.
The primary purpose of a trademark is to represent the source of a particular good or service and act as a quality guarantee. This helps to build trust and loyalty among the consuming public, ensuring that they can easily identify and associate a specific mark with the brand it represents. Furthermore, trademarks address the following objectives:
Trademarks make it easier for consumers to distinguish between different brands and their respective products or services. This helps prevent confusion and potential deception caused by similar marks, thus ensuring that consumers know exactly what they are buying.
By differentiating products and services, trademarks create a competitive environment in the market. This encourages companies to invest in the quality and service standards of their offerings to gain and maintain the loyalty of consumers.
Trademarks offer protection to businesses against unauthorized use or infringement, allowing them to safeguard their reputation and market position. Legal action can be taken against anyone found to be using a registered trademark without the owner's permission or attempting to imitate a mark to capitalize on its goodwill.
Trademarks allow companies to expand their operations and enter new markets by licensing or franchising their brand to other businesses. This not only helps in revenue generation but also strengthens the global presence of the brand.
There are several types of trademarks, each with its unique characteristics and level of legal protection. Some common types include:
These trademarks consist of a word or a group of words that identifies and distinguishes a product or service. Examples include brand names like "Coca-Cola" or "Nike."
Logo marks are distinctive graphical representations or designs that identify and represent a brand or its products/services. Examples are the Apple logo or the McDonald's golden arches.
Composite trademarks combine a word mark with a logo or design to create a unique and easily recognizable mark. Examples of composite marks are the Starbucks coffee logo, which features both the company name and its iconic mermaid image.
These trademarks consist of a phrase or a sentence used to convey a brand's message or identity. Examples include Nike's "Just Do It" or McDonald's "I'm Lovin' It."
Shape marks protect the unique shape or configuration of a product or its packaging. An example is the shape of the Coca-Cola bottle.
These trademarks protect a specific sound associated with a brand or its products/services. Examples include the Intel jingle or the MGM lion's roar.
Each type of trademark offers varying degrees of protection, and it is essential to choose the appropriate trademark type for your business or product based on its unique characteristics and needs.
Trademark registration is an important step for businesses and individuals who want to protect their brand, logo, slogan or other unique identifiers of their products or services. Registering a trademark grants the owner exclusive rights to use the mark and to prevent others from using a similar mark that might cause confusion among consumers. The process of trademark registration varies slightly between countries, but it generally involves searching for prior trademarks, submitting an application, examination, opposition period, and registration.
Before starting the trademark registration process, it's important to conduct a comprehensive trademark search. This step ensures that your desired trademark is not infringing upon any existing trademarks and is, in fact, available for registration. A trademark search should be performed in the jurisdictions where you wish to protect your mark, as well as in international databases if you plan to operate globally.
There are various online databases and search tools available for conducting trademark searches, such as the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) Trademark Electronic Search System (TESS) or the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Global Brand Database. You may also choose to engage the services of a professional trademark attorney or agent to help guide you through the search and registration process.
Once you've determined that your desired trademark is available and unlikely to infringe upon any existing trademarks, the next step is to prepare and submit a trademark application. Applications can be submitted online through the relevant trademark office's website, such as the USPTO for the United States or the European Union Intellectual Property Office (EUIPO) for the EU.
Your trademark application should include the following information:
It is essential to accurately and thoroughly complete your trademark application to avoid delays or rejections during the examination process.
Once your application is submitted, it will be reviewed and examined by the relevant trademark office. During this examination process, the examiner will assess whether your trademark meets all the requirements and whether it conflicts with any existing registered trademarks. If there are any issues, the examiner may issue a notification requiring you to submit further information or make adjustments to your application.
If the examiner finds that your trademark is registrable, it will move forward to the next stage of the process.
After the examination, your trademark application will be published in the relevant trademark office's official gazette or online platform. This publication stage allows third parties to review the pending trademark and submit any objections or oppositions they may have.
An opposition period typically lasts between 30 to 90 days, depending on the jurisdiction. If no oppositions are filed during this time, your trademark will progress towards registration. However, if someone files an opposition, you will need to address their concerns and potentially engage in legal proceedings to resolve the issue.
If your trademark application successfully passes the opposition period with no conflicts, your trademark will be registered. You will receive a registration certificate as proof of your exclusive rights to the mark, along with information regarding the renewal process.
Trademarks require periodic renewals, usually every ten years, to maintain their registered status. Failure to renew your trademark on time can result in its expiration and the loss of your exclusive rights to the mark.
Overall, the trademark registration process can be complex and time-consuming, but obtaining registered trademark protection is crucial to safeguard your brand and your business. Engaging the services of a professional attorney or agent can help ensure a smooth and successful registration process.
Before registering a trademark, it is important to understand the eligibility criteria set forth by the governing body in your jurisdiction. In general, the criteria for trademark registration can be broken into three main aspects: distinctiveness, non-conflicting, and non-deceptive marks.
In order to be eligible for trademark registration, a mark must be distinctive. Distinctiveness refers to the specific quality that sets the mark apart from other marks in use, making it easy for consumers to identify the goods or services it represents. Distinctive marks include logos, brand names, taglines, and even distinct colors and shapes associated with a company.
Merely descriptive marks, which describe the product or service in question, are generally not considered distinctive and may be ineligible for registration. However, in some cases, a descriptive mark can acquire distinctiveness through extensive and long-term use in the industry, making it eligible for registration as a trademark.
Another important eligibility criterion is that the mark must not conflict with any existing registered trademarks. This means that the mark cannot be too similar to another registered trademark, as this may cause confusion among consumers regarding the source of the goods or services represented by the mark.
In a trademark search, which will be covered in the next section, you can check for the existence of conflicting trademarks to avoid wasting time and resources on trademark applications that may be rejected.
Lastly, a trademark must not be deceptive or misleading. If a mark is found to be false or misleading about the nature, quality, or geographic origin of the goods or services it represents, it may be deemed ineligible for registration.
Having met these general criteria, you can move forward to the next step in the process of applying for a trademark: conducting a trademark search.
Before filing a trademark application, you should conduct a trademark search to identify any potential conflicts with existing registered trademarks. This search helps ensure that your proposed mark is unique and does not infringe upon the rights of other trademark owners.
There are various methods to conduct a trademark search. One option is to use online databases provided by trademark offices, such as the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) or the European Union Intellectual Property Office (EUIPO). These databases allow you to search for existing trademarks that may be similar to your intended mark, helping you assess the likelihood of your application being approved.
If you are uncertain about how to conduct a comprehensive search, consider hiring a trademark attorney or professional search firm. These professionals can help navigate the complexities of trademark law and give you a more accurate assessment of potential conflicts with your proposed mark.
Once you have conducted a trademark search and feel confident that your proposed mark meets the eligibility criteria, it is time to file a trademark application with the appropriate governing body. In the U.S., this would be the USPTO, while in the European Union, it would be the EUIPO.
The application must include relevant information about the applicant (such as name, address, and contact details), a detailed description of the goods or services the mark represents, and a clear representation of the mark itself – typically in the form of a digital image or drawing.
Additionally, you will need to pay the required filing fees, which vary depending on the jurisdiction and the specific classes of goods or services you wish to protect. Keep in mind that the application process may take several months or even years, particularly if there are objections or oppositions to your application.
After filing your trademark application, it will be reviewed by an examining attorney at the trademark office. If the attorney identifies any issues with your application, they will issue an Office Action, which details the objections and gives you an opportunity to respond.
Common objections include marks that are considered confusingly similar to existing trademarks, marks that are deemed primarily geographically descriptive, or marks that lack distinctiveness. In your response, you can provide arguments and evidence to support your case for registration.
If your response to the Office Action is sufficient, your application may be approved; otherwise, it could be refused, and you would need to file an appeal or a new application.
If your trademark application is approved, your mark will be published in the relevant official gazette. At this stage, third parties have a limited time window to file oppositions against your mark if they believe it conflicts with their own interests.
If no oppositions are filed, or if the oppositions are dismissed, your mark will be officially registered, and you will receive a certificate of registration. At this point, you will have legal rights to use and protect your mark within your jurisdiction.
Once your trademark is registered, it is essential to maintain and protect it to ensure that your rights are not diminished or lost. You can do this by actively monitoring and enforcing your rights, meaning that you should take action against any unauthorized use of your mark that may lead to consumer confusion.
Furthermore, trademarks usually require periodic renewal, and failure to submit the necessary documents and fees within the specified timeframe may result in the loss of your rights. Be sure to familiarize yourself with the renewal requirements and deadlines for your jurisdiction to keep your trademark protected and enforceable.
In conclusion, obtaining a trademark requires careful attention to eligibility criteria, research through a trademark search, and a potentially lengthy application and review process. Once secured, proper maintenance and renewal are crucial to retaining your trademark rights.
Reviewing previous trademark registrations is a crucial step in the process of filing for a new trademark. Prior to filing a trademark application, it is important to ensure that your desired mark is unique and not already in use, as this would likely lead to legal disputes and delays in the registration process. Reviewing previous registrations can offer valuable insight into the existing intellectual property landscape, allowing you to fine-tune your trademark strategy and identify potential conflicts before submitting your application.
Additionally, understanding and analyzing previous registrations can help you determine the strength and protectability of your own mark. This knowledge can inform you on whether your mark is inherently distinctive and, thus, eligible for registration, or if it is too generic or descriptive to warrant legal protection.
Finally, being familiar with previous trademark registrations will aid you in avoiding costly legal disputes with existing trademark owners, which could ultimately result in the cancellation of your registration or the payment of damages in a potential lawsuit.
By reviewing previous trademark registrations and analyzing the unique aspects of your desired mark, you can ensure a smoother registration process and reduce the likelihood of legal disputes with existing trademark owners. Remember to be thorough and consult with professional assistance if needed to secure the strongest protection for your brand.
Before registering a new trademark, it is essential to review previous trademark registrations to avoid possible conflicts and infringement issues. Conducting a thorough search of existing trademarks helps establish a strong and defensible trademark that is less likely to face legal challenges.
The importance of reviewing previous registrations lies in the following aspects:
Trademark infringement occurs when one party uses a mark that is identical or confusingly similar to another party's registered trademark without permission. Reviewing previous registrations is vital for protecting your business from costly and time-consuming lawsuits that could arise from using an infringing logo, brand name, or slogan.
A strong and unique brand identity is essential for your brand's success. It distinguishes your products and services from those of your competitors, making it easier for customers to find and recognize your business. Reviewing existing trademarks ensures that your brand is distinct, memorable, and not associated with competing brands.
Trademark authorities examine new trademark applications for possible conflicts with existing registrations. If your proposed trademark is similar to an existing mark, your application may be refused. By reviewing previous registrations, you increase the likelihood of a successful registration and save time and resources associated with rebranding and refiling an application.
Securing a registered trademark provides legal rights, such as the exclusive right to use the mark in connection with specific goods or services. A comprehensive review of previous registrations fortifies your legal position by reducing the risk of infringement or opposition from other trademark owners.
The first step in conducting a thorough trademark search involves identifying similar goods or services associated with existing trademarks. A comprehensive understanding of the products or services offered by potential competitors is crucial for minimizing the chances of trademark conflicts.
To identify similar goods or services, consider the following:
Trademark classifications help categorize trademark registrations based on the type of goods or services they represent. Review the classification system in your jurisdiction, and identify the classes that best correspond to your intended trademark use.
Identify existing businesses in your industry that provide similar goods or services to the ones you plan to offer. This will help you understand the landscape, avoid using similar trademarks, and maintain a distinct brand identity.
Consider the perception of the target consumers. If consumers are likely to associate your products or services with those of an existing trademark, a conflict may arise.
Once you have identified similar goods or services, scrutinize their trademarks to thoroughly assess potential conflicts with your proposed trademark.
Accessing registered trademark databases is essential for conducting a comprehensive trademark search. These databases contain all active trademark registrations, allowing you to review existing marks and evaluate potential conflicts with your proposed trademark.
Many trademark authorities offer free, web-based search databases, such as the USPTO's Trademark Electronic Search System (TESS) or the European Union Intellectual Property Office's (EUIPO) eSearch database.
When searching registered trademark databases, consider:
Search for different variations of your mark, including alternative spellings, similar words, and phonetic equivalents. This helps address potential conflicts with trademarks that may be visually or phonetically similar to your proposed mark.
If you plan to expand your business internationally, consider searching trademark databases in relevant jurisdictions. Some databases, like the World Intellectual Property Organization's (WIPO) Global Brand Database, provide comprehensive international search options.
After searching registered trademark databases and identifying similar goods or services, the final step is evaluating potential conflicts with your proposed trademark. Review the identified trademarks and assess whether your proposed mark is likely to cause confusion for consumers or infringe on existing rights.
Consider the following factors when evaluating potential conflicts:
Evaluate the degree of similarity between your proposed trademark and existing marks. Consider visual similarities, phonetic similarities, and similarities in meaning or connotation.
Assess the strength and distinctiveness of existing trademarks. Stronger and more distinctive trademarks enjoy broader protection and are more likely to pose a conflict with your proposed mark.
Take into account the marketing channels and target consumers of existing trademarks. A higher likelihood of consumer confusion may result from similarities in marketing strategies or target consumers.
In conclusion, reviewing previous registrations and thoroughly assessing potential conflicts are vital aspects of the trademark registration process. By identifying similar goods or services, searching registered trademark databases, and evaluating potential conflicts, you establish a unique and strong brand identity, protect your intellectual property rights, mitigate the risk of legal issues, and increase the likelihood of a successful trademark registration.
Trademark infringement is a violation of the exclusive rights granted to the owner of a validly registered trademark. This violation occurs when a party, without the permission of the trademark owner, uses a mark that creates a likelihood of confusion among consumers as to the origin, endorsement, or affiliation of the goods or services in question. In essence, it is the unauthorized use of a trademark or a substantially similar mark in a manner that is likely to cause confusion, deception, or mistake as to the source or origin of goods or services.
Trademarks are a crucial aspect of a business's identity and brand, as they represent the company's image, reputation, and products or services. The purpose of trademark laws is to protect both consumers and trademark owners from the potentially harmful consequences of confusion between competing sources of goods or services.
In determining trademark class whether infringement has occurred, courts look for several factors, including but not limited to the similarity of the marks, the similarity of the goods or services, the strength of the owner's mark, the defendant's intent, and evidence of actual confusion among consumers.
Trademark owners who believe their rights have been infringed upon have several options for recourse. These remedies include:
a) Actual Damages: These damages represent the actual financial losses incurred by the trademark owner due to the infringement, such as lost profits or the decrease in the value of their trademark.
b) Defendant's Profits: In some cases, a trademark owner may be entitled to recover the profits that the infringer made from the unauthorized use of the trademark.
c) Statutory Damages: In certain circumstances, a trademark owner may be awarded statutory damages, which are predetermined monetary amounts set by law, regardless of the actual harm suffered by the trademark owner. Statutory damages can be particularly beneficial in cases where actual damages are difficult to prove.
It is important for trademark owners to diligently monitor the marketplace for potential infringements and take appropriate action to protect their valuable intellectual property rights.
Trademark infringement is the unauthorized use of a trademark or service mark that is identical or confusingly similar to another person's registered mark, in connection with goods or services for which the trademark is registered. Trademarks are valuable assets of a company and can include logos, symbols, names, phrases, or designs that help to identify and distinguish a company's goods or services from those of its competitors.
There are primarily two types of trademark infringement: direct and indirect. Direct infringement occurs when a person or entity uses a protected mark in a way that is likely to cause confusion or mistake about the origin of the goods or services offered. Indirect infringement, also known as contributory infringement, occurs when a person or entity knowingly assists or encourages another person to use a protected mark in a manner that is likely to cause confusion or mistake about the origin of the goods or services offered.
There are certain factors that are considered to determine if trademark infringement has occurred. These factors are collectively known as the likelihood of confusion test. Some of the factors include:
There are various consequences for individuals or companies found guilty of trademark infringement, including:
If a trademark owner suspects that their mark is being infringed, the following legal remedies may be available to them:
To prevent trademark infringement, businesses should take the following steps:
By understanding the definition of trademark infringement, its consequences, legal remedies, and preventative measures, businesses can better protect their valuable intellectual property assets and avoid potentially costly disputes.
Before filing a trademark application, conducting a comprehensive trademark search is a crucial step in ensuring that the desired trademark does not infringe on pre-existing registered marks or cause confusion among consumers. By searching national and international databases, including the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), and industry-specific listings, businesses can assess the potential risks for their intended marks and prevent potential conflicts.
Apart from reducing the risk of infringement, a thorough trademark search also helps identify potential modifications or adjustments to the proposed mark, making it more distinct and recognizable. Additionally, it can save both time and money in the long run by avoiding unnecessary litigation and rejection of the trademark application.
A strong, distinctive trademark is crucial to protect your brand and increase brand recognition. There are various levels of distinctiveness that can strengthen a trademark's protection.
Trademarks that are descriptive or generic are considered weak and do not provide robust protection. Thus, it is advisable to avoid using generic or overly descriptive terms when registering a trademark.
A correctly filed trademark application is essential for obtaining prompt approval and avoiding unnecessary rejections or delays. To improve the chances of a successful registration, consider the following:
While it is possible to file a trademark application without legal representation, working with a trademark attorney greatly increases the chances of successful registration and offers several advantages:
By following these best practices for trademark registration, businesses can enjoy the benefits of a robust trademark that protects their brand and distinguishes them in the marketplace.
Before deciding on a trademark, it is crucial to conduct a comprehensive search to ensure no other business or individual is using an identical or similar trademark. A thorough search can save a business owner considerable time and expense in the long run, avoiding potential legal disputes and the need to re-brand later on.
Start by searching the official trademarks database in your country. In the United States, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) maintains the trademark database. This database contains all federally registered trademarks and pending applications.
Utilize the Trademark Electronic Search System (TESS) to search for identical or similar trademarks that may cause confusion with the proposed trademark. Bear in mind that not all countries have online databases, and some may require an in-person or written request to access their records.
Aside from official databases, it is wise to conduct supplementary searches on the internet and domain name registries. This step can help identify unregistered trademarks that may not appear in official databases but could still pose a risk of confusion or infringement claims.
Use search engines like Google, social media platforms, and domain name registries to look for any similar or conflicting business names or logos. This process helps uncover any potential issues that may not have been apparent during the official trademark database search.
Conducting a comprehensive trademark search is a complex and time-consuming process. To ensure a thorough search, consider consulting with a trademark attorney or professional search firm. These experts have the knowledge and experience to identify potential conflicts and provide guidance on whether a trademark is likely to be granted registration.
Selecting a unique and distinctive trademark is essential for protecting your brand and avoiding confusion with other businesses. Here are some tips for choosing an effective trademark:
Stay away from using generic and descriptive terms as trademarks. Generic terms, such as pizza or car, cannot be protected as trademarks because they do not distinguish your business from others. Descriptive terms, like 'tasty pizza' or 'fast car,' may be difficult to protect because they describe characteristics that many businesses could claim.
Choose trademarks that are suggestive, arbitrary, or fanciful. Suggestive marks hint at a product or service's characteristics without explicitly describing them (e.g., Netflix). Arbitrary marks are standard words used in an unrelated context (e.g., Apple for electronics). Fanciful marks are invented words or phrases that have no prior meaning (e.g., Kodak).
These types of trademarks are generally easier to protect and enforce, as they are inherently unique and distinguish your business from competitors.
Periodically monitoring your competitors' trademarks can help safeguard your business against potential infringement and ensure your trademark remains relevant and distinctive.
Most trademark offices and registries provide services that allow users to set up alerts and notifications for new trademark applications or registered trademarks. Take advantage of these services to remain informed about any new or potentially conflicting trademarks within your industry or market.
Regularly review your competitors' websites, social media accounts, and advertising materials for any signs of trademark infringement. Act promptly if you discover any potential infringement, including contacting your legal counsel or sending a cease-and-desist letter.
Proper use and enforcement of your trademark are vital for maintaining its value and preventing unauthorized use by others.
Ensure that you are using your trademark consistently and appropriately across all marketing materials, packaging, and products or services. This includes using the appropriate trademark symbol (™ for unregistered trademarks, ® for registered trademarks) and displaying the mark with a consistent visual appearance.
Registering your trademark with the relevant trademark office grants you exclusive rights to its use and makes it easier to take legal action against infringers. Registering your trademark also puts others on notice of your rights to the mark and may deter would-be infringers.
Regularly monitor the marketplace for potential infringements of your trademark and act swiftly to enforce your rights. This may involve sending cease-and-desist letters, initiating legal proceedings, or engaging in alternative dispute resolution methods. By taking swift and decisive action against infringers, you protect the value of your brand and discourage others from trying to capitalize on your goodwill.
Reviewing previous trademark registrations helps identify potential conflicts with existing marks, evaluate the strength of a proposed mark, and design a unique trademark that stands out from competitors while avoiding infringement on existing rights (Inta, 2021).
Searching for previous registrations can be done using online trademark databases like the United States Patent and Trademark Office's (USPTO) Trademark Electronic Search System (TESS), World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Global Brand Database, or national trademark offices websites (USPTO, 2021; WIPO, 2021).
While not mandatory, it is highly advisable to conduct a thorough search before filing for a trademark registration. This step reduces the chances of facing opposition, infringement claims, or refusal due to pre-existing similar trademarks (Inta, 2021).
When evaluating similarity, consider visual, phonetic, and conceptual aspects, as well as goods or services covered, and the likelihood of consumer confusion. Any significant similarity could pose a risk of infringement (Inta, 2021).
It is possible to register similar trademarks for different goods or services; however, if the existing trademark is well-known or likely to cause consumer confusion, it may still be deemed infringing (Inta, 2021).
If a similar trademark is found, it's wise to consult with a trademark attorney to assess infringement risks and consider modifying the mark to ensure uniqueness and avoid conflicts with pre-existing registrations (Inta, 2021). References: Inta. (2021). International Trademark Association - Fundamentals of Trademarks. Retrieved from https://www.inta.org/Trademark-Basics/Fact-Sheets USPTO. (2021). USPTO Trademark Electronic Search System (TESS). Retrieved from https://www.uspto.gov/trademarks-searching-trademarks WIPO. (2021). Global Brand Database. World Intellectual Property Organization. Retrieved from https://www.wipo.int/branddb/en/
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