In this article, readers will get an in-depth understanding of trademark infringement, with a focus on secondary liability. The article explains the legal framework and different types of secondary liability, including contributory and vicarious liability. Readers will also learn about the elements required to establish these forms of liability and explore relevant examples and case law. Additionally, the article discusses the evolving legal landscape in light of the rise in e-commerce and the role of intermediaries. It also covers defenses and exceptions to secondary liability, as well as the potential remedies and enforcement actions available to trademark owners when dealing with such cases. By understanding these topics, businesses can better manage their risk and navigate the complex world of trademark enforcement.

Secondary Liability for Trademark Infringement

A trademark is a symbol, word, or phrase used by a company to identify and differentiate its products or services from those of other companies. Registering a trademark provides the owner with exclusive rights to use the mark in connection with their goods or services. When another party uses a trademark without the owner's permission, this may result in trademark infringement.

Definition of Trademark Infringement

Trademark infringement occurs when a party uses a trademark that is identical or confusingly similar to a registered trademark in a way that causes confusion, mistake, or deception among consumers regarding the source, affiliation, or sponsorship of products or services. This use can lead to significant harm to the trademark owner, including the dilution of the trademark, loss of goodwill, and financial losses due to misappropriation of sales.

In order to prove trademark infringement, a plaintiff (trademark owner) must establish the following elements:

  1. They own a valid and legally protectable trademark.
  2. The defendant (infringer) used a mark that is identical or confusingly similar to the plaintiff's trademark in commerce.
  3. The defendant's use of the mark causes a likelihood of confusion among consumers regarding the source, affiliation, or sponsorship of the relevant goods or services.

In assessing whether there is a likelihood of confusion, courts may consider various factors, such as the strength of the plaintiff's trademark, the similarities between the marks, the proximity of the products or services, the sophistication of consumers, and evidence of actual confusion.

Types of Secondary Liability: Contributory and Vicarious

In addition to direct infringement, trademark law recognizes secondary liability for parties who facilitate or enable infringement by others. There are two types of secondary liability: contributory infringement and vicarious liability.

  1. Contributory Infringement: This occurs when a party knowingly contributes to the infringement of a trademark by another party. In order to establish contributory infringement, a plaintiff must prove that:

a. The defendant had knowledge or reason to know of the infringing activity. b. The defendant materially contributed to the infringement by assisting or enabling the direct infringer.

For example, a manufacturer of counterfeit goods may be liable for contributory infringement if they knowingly provide materials or services that enable a retailer to sell infringing products.

  1. Vicarious Liability: This arises when a party has control over an infringer and receives a direct financial benefit from the infringement. The key element in establishing vicarious liability is the level of control the defendant exercises over the infringer, such as when they have the right and ability to supervise or stop the infringement.

An example of vicarious liability is when a landlord continues to lease retail space to a tenant selling counterfeit goods, knowing of the tenant's conduct, and benefiting financially from the sales.

Legal Framework for Secondary Liability in Trademark Law

Secondary liability in trademark law is based on principles borrowed from tort law and is recognized in both the United States and other jurisdictions adopting similar legal frameworks. In the U.S., the leading case for secondary liability in the trademark context is Inwood Laboratories, Inc. v. Ives Laboratories, Inc. In this case, the Supreme Court articulated the principles of contributory and vicarious liability, which have since guided lower courts in adjudicating secondary liability claims in trademark cases.

Additionally, courts in various jurisdictions may also rely on national trademark legislation and relevant international agreements to inform their analysis of secondary liability. For instance, the U.S. Lanham Act – the primary federal trademark law – and the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement) both provide a framework for understanding the scope and limitations of secondary liability in the trademark context.

In recent years, secondary liability has become particularly relevant in addressing online trademark infringement issues involving internet service providers, search engines, and platforms facilitating the sale of counterfeit goods. Courts continue to develop and refine the application of secondary liability principles in light of evolving technology and market dynamics, seeking to strike a balance between protecting trademark rights and fostering innovation and competition.

Contributory Liability for Trademark Infringement

Trademark infringement occurs when a third party uses a registered trademark without the permission of the trademark owner, which results in confusion among consumers as to the source of the goods or services. Contributory trademark infringement is a legal concept that imposes liability on a party who either knowingly encourages, assists, or induces another to infringe a trademark. This article will delve into the definition and elements required to establish contributory trademark infringement, direct control and monitoring, knowledge and intent requirement, and discuss some examples and case law.

Definition and Elements Required

Contributory liability for trademark infringement is based on the principle that those who assist, facilitate, or participate in the infringement are equally culpable. It arises when a secondary party, who is not directly infringing a trademark, contributes to the infringement by another person or entity. The U.S. Supreme Court first recognized the doctrine of contributory liability for trademark infringement in the 1982 case Inwood Labs., Inc. v. Ives Labs., Inc., 456 U.S. 844 (1982).

To establish contributory liability for trademark infringement, the plaintiff (the party alleging infringement) must prove the following elements:

  1. The primary party (the direct infringer) has committed trademark infringement;
  2. The defendant (the secondary party) has knowledge of the primary party's infringement; and
  3. The defendant has materially contributed to the infringement.

Direct Control and Monitoring

An important factor to determine contributory liability for trademark infringement is whether the defendant has direct control and monitoring over the actions of the primary party. This control should be significant and have a direct impact on the primary party's infringing activities.

For instance, in Internet-based contributory liability cases, courts have considered various factors, such as whether the defendant had the ability to remove or disable access to the infringing content, whether the defendant had access to information about the primary party's activities, and whether the defendant took any preventive measures to avoid future infringement.

It is crucial for the plaintiff to establish a clear link between the defendant's actions and the primary party's infringement activities to prove direct control and monitoring.

Knowledge and Intent Requirement

A crucial element in proving contributory liability is the knowledge and intent of the defendant. The plaintiff must demonstrate that the defendant had actual or constructive knowledge of the primary party's infringing activities and that the defendant intentionally facilitated or induced the infringement. Constructive knowledge means that the defendant should have known about the infringement due to the circumstances surrounding the case.

Mere negligence or inaction does not suffice to impose contributory liability for trademark infringement. The defendant must deliberately contribute to or induce the primary party's infringement. This knowledge and intent requirement helps prevent innocent third parties from being held liable for the infringing conduct of others.

Examples and Case Law

Several cases illustrate the concept of contributory liability for trademark infringement and how courts have applied the required elements. A noteworthy example is the previously mentioned Inwood Labs., Inc. v. Ives Labs., Inc. case, where a generic drug manufacturer was held liable for contributory infringement because it had intentionally supplied drug capsules with the same color and appearance as the plaintiff's trademark-protected product.

In another case, Tiffany Inc. v. eBay Inc., 600 F.3d 93 (2d Cir. 2010), the Second Circuit Court of Appeals held that eBay was not contributorily liable for trademark infringement resulting from counterfeit items that its users sold on its website. The court reasoned that although eBay had generalized knowledge of infringement, it lacked specific knowledge of individual instances of infringement. Furthermore, the court found that eBay exercised significant control over its website and took reasonable measures to prevent the sale of counterfeit goods.

These examples demonstrate the complexities involved in proving contributory liability for trademark infringement. The plaintiff must carefully establish the elements of knowledge, intent, and direct control to hold a third party accountable for the infringement actions of primary parties.

Vicarious Liability for Trademark Infringement

Definition and Elements Required

Vicarious liability refers to the legal responsibility imposed on one party for the actions or conduct of another party. In the context of trademark infringement, vicarious liability arises when a person or entity is held accountable for the unauthorized use of a trademark by another individual or entity, even if they did not directly engage in the infringing action themselves. To establish vicarious liability for trademark infringement, the following elements must be met:

  1. There exists a valid trademark that is owned by the plaintiff.
  2. There is a relationship between the infringer and the defendant (the party being held vicariously liable) that is sufficient for the imposition of vicarious liability.
  3. The defendant had the ability to control or supervise the infringer's conduct.
  4. The defendant derived a financial benefit from the infringement.

Relationship Between Infringer and Defendant

For a court to impose vicarious liability for trademark infringement, there must be a relationship between the infringer and the defendant that justifies holding the defendant responsible for the infringer's conduct. This relationship can take various forms, but the most common involve employer-employee, partnership, or principal-agent relationships.

In the employer-employee context, an employer may be held vicariously liable for trademark infringement committed by its employee if the infringement occurred within the scope of the employee's employment. Similarly, in a partnership context, one partner can be held vicariously liable for the trademark infringement of another partner if the infringement was committed within the scope of the partnership. Lastly, in a principal-agent relationship, the principal can be held liable for the agent's infringing actions if they were committed within the scope of the agent's authority.

Control and Benefit Requirement

In addition to demonstrating a sufficient relationship between the infringer and the defendant, a plaintiff must also establish that the defendant had the ability to control or supervise the infringer's conduct and derived a financial benefit from the infringement.

The control element requires that the defendant have the power to direct, govern, or manage the infringer's conduct. In some cases, this can be established through evidence of the defendant providing resources, facilities, or support for the infringing activity. The benefit element requires that the defendant receive some sort of financial gain, either directly or indirectly, from the infringing conduct. This can include increased sales, increased market share, or other related profits that can be attributed to the unauthorized use of the trademark.

Examples and Case Law

Vicarious liability for trademark infringement is often litigated in cases involving online marketplaces and the sellers of counterfeit goods. For example, in the 2010 case of Tiffany (NJ) Inc. v. eBay Inc., Tiffany, a luxury jewelry retailer, sued eBay, an online marketplace, for vicarious liability over trademark infringement committed by sellers on its platform. The court ultimately held that eBay was not liable because it did not have sufficient control over the infringing activities of its sellers and did not have knowledge of specific violations.

Similarly, in the 2017 case of Optimum Technologies v. Home Depot, Optimum Technologies sued Home Depot for vicarious liability over trademark infringement concerning the sale of counterfeit flooring product on Home Depot's online marketplace. In this case, the court determined that Home Depot was not vicariously liable because it did not have direct control and supervision over the third-party sellers and did not know of the infringement.

These cases underline the importance of demonstrating a substantial relationship between the infringer and the defendant, along with the elements of control and benefit in establishing vicarious liability for trademark infringement.

Comparison of Contributory and Vicarious Liability

Contributory and vicarious liability are two distinct concepts in the legal landscape that pertain to different parties' liability in a specific situation or event. In essence, contributory liability refers to the situation where an individual or entity has played a part in causing the harm or damages, while vicarious liability holds an individual or entity responsible for another's wrongful act. Although both concepts have their roots in tort law, they operate in distinct ways and affect different aspects of liability. This article will explore the similarities and differences between contributory and vicarious liability while also discussing their applicability to different circumstances and possible risk reduction strategies.

Similarities and Differences in Elements

Contributory and vicarious liability share some similarities, as they both involve establishing the relationship between the parties, determining the harm or damages, and imposing liability based on that relationship.

In contributory liability, one or more parties can be held accountable for their part in causing the harm or damages. Generally, this liability arises when the plaintiff has been negligent or has contributed to their own injury. The central elements of contributory liability include: - The defendant's negligence, which must be proven - The plaintiff's negligence, which has contributed to the harm or damages - The shared responsibility of both parties in causing the harm or damages, based on a proportionate degree

On the other hand, vicarious liability focuses on holding a party responsible for the wrongful actions of another person, typically based on a relationship between the parties, such as employment or agency. The key elements of vicarious liability consist of: - An employer-employee or principal-agent relationship - The wrongful act committed by the employee or agent within the scope of their employment or agency - The third party's injury or loss as a result of that wrongful act

Applicability to Different Situations

Contributory and vicarious liability apply to different scenarios and may involve varying degrees of responsibility.

Contributory liability is most commonly seen in personal injury cases, where the injured party may have contributed to their own injuries by failing to exercise reasonable care. For example, a pedestrian jaywalking and being subsequently hit by a car could be deemed partially at fault for their own injuries.

Vicarious liability is predominantly used in the context of employment relationships. An employer can be held vicariously liable for the tortious acts of their employees committed within the scope of their employment. For instance, if an employee causes a car accident while on the job, the employer could potentially be held responsible for the resulting damages.

Risk Reduction Strategies for Businesses

While it is crucial for businesses to be aware of both contributory and vicarious liability, specific preventive measures can be taken to mitigate potential risks:

In the case of contributory liability, businesses can: - Promote safety awareness programs to educate employees on best practices and foster a safety-conscious culture - Implement and enforce safety policies and procedures to prevent workplace accidents - Invest in technology and equipment that can reduce the risk of accidents or injuries

To minimize exposure to vicarious liability, businesses can: - Thoroughly screen and vet potential employees during the hiring process to identify individuals with a history of violence or misconduct - Train employees on company policies and the legal implications of their actions, ensuring they understand the boundaries and limitations of their role - Regularly monitor and supervise employees' activities, promptly responding to any issues or complaints that may arise - Provide guidance and support to employees dealing with volatile or complex situations, aiming to prevent misunderstandings and potential escalation

In conclusion, understanding the concepts of contributory and vicarious liability is critical for businesses seeking to prevent potential legal issues and minimize liability exposure. By recognizing the key differences between these two forms of liability and adopting appropriate risk reduction strategies, businesses can better protect themselves and ensure a more secure operational environment.

Evolving Legal Landscape and Secondary Liability

As the digital age has reshaped the way businesses operate, the legal landscape and the approach to secondary liability in intellectual property infringements have also evolved. This article will discuss the impact of the internet and e-commerce on infringement cases, the role of intermediaries and online marketplaces in such cases, and recent case law and developments in this area.

Impact of Internet and E-commerce on Infringement Cases

The widespread use of the internet and the rapid expansion of e-commerce platforms have dramatically increased the potential for intellectual property infringement. In addition to traditional copyright, trademark, and patent violations – which have become easier to commit due to the ease of copying and distributing protected material online – new forms of infringement have also emerged, such as cybersquatting, deep linking, and keyword advertising.

As a result, the legal framework for intellectual property has had to adapt to keep pace with these new challenges. Courts and legislatures around the world have endeavored to strike a balance between protecting the rights of intellectual property owners and promoting the free flow of information and ideas online. In many jurisdictions, this has led to the development of the concept of secondary liability, whereby intermediaries such as internet service providers, search engines, and online platforms may be held indirectly responsible for the infringing activities of their users.

Secondary liability can take several forms, including contributory infringement (providing assistance or encouragement to infringers), vicarious liability (profiting from another's infringement while having the power to control it), and inducement (actively encouraging or promoting infringement). These concepts have been applied to various forms of intellectual property and to online businesses in different ways, and the precise contours of secondary liability continue to evolve as new technologies and business models emerge.

Role of Intermediaries and Online Marketplaces

Intermediaries such as ISPs, search engines, and e-commerce platforms play a crucial role in the modern ecosystem of the internet. They facilitate the exchange of goods, services, and information between millions of users, and in many cases provide valuable services such as hosting, indexing, and content management. However, they can also be conduits for intellectual property infringement, as their services enable users to upload, share, or sell infringing material.

Recognizing the difficulties of holding individual users responsible for their online actions, the legal system has turned to the concept of secondary liability, which aims to deter infringers by imposing liability on the intermediaries that facilitate their activities. The rationale behind this approach is that intermediaries have greater resources and technical capabilities to detect and prevent infringement, and thus should bear a share of the responsibility for such violations.

However, imposing secondary liability on intermediaries raises its own set of challenges. Courts and lawmakers must balance the need to protect intellectual property rights with the protection of intermediaries from overly burdensome liability that could hinder their ability to provide services and stifle innovation. To address this concern, many jurisdictions have adopted so-called "safe harbor" provisions, which limit the liability of intermediaries provided that they adhere to certain requirements, such as implementing notice-and-takedown procedures and suspending repeat infringers.

Recent Case Law and Developments

As internet technologies and e-commerce businesses continue to evolve, case law and legal developments in secondary liability remain a dynamic and ever-changing landscape. A few recent examples demonstrate the complexities and ongoing debates in this area:

  • In the United States, the Supreme Court's decision in MGM v. Grokster (2005) clarified the standard for inducement of copyright infringement, finding that a company that distributed file-sharing software could be liable for its users' infringements if it promoted the software as a tool for such activities.
  • In the European Union, the Court of Justice of the EU's decision in L'Oréal v. eBay (2011) held that online marketplaces could be liable for trademark infringements committed by their users, unless they act diligently to prevent such infringements and remove infringing listings upon notice.
  • In China, the high-profile case of Alibaba Group's lawsuit against several vendors for selling counterfeit products on its e-commerce platform Taobao illustrated the challenges faced by online marketplaces in combating infringement and the potential for significant secondary liability.

These developments highlight the ongoing challenges and debates surrounding secondary liability in the age of the internet and e-commerce. As new technologies and business models continue to emerge, courts and lawmakers will continue grappling with the evolving nature of intellectual property infringement and the appropriate level of responsibility to be shared by intermediaries.

Defenses and Exceptions to Secondary Liability

Secondary liability refers to an indirect responsibility that arises when one party aids or participates in the infringing acts of another party. In the context of intellectual property, secondary liability can include indirect copyright infringement, where one party knowingly contributes to or induces violations of another's copyright. This article will discuss the relevant defenses and exceptions to secondary liability, including the first sale doctrine, innocent infringement, and safe harbor provisions under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA).

First Sale Doctrine and Exhaustion of Rights

The first sale doctrine is a principle that limits the exclusive distribution rights of copyright holders to the first sale of a copyrighted work. Once a copyright holder sells or transfers ownership of a particular copy of a work, that specific copy can be legally resold, rented, or otherwise disposed of by the new owner without obtaining permission from the copyright holder. This promotes the free flow of goods and information by ensuring that copyright holders cannot impose restrictions on how individuals use their legally obtained copies of works.

The first sale doctrine may be used as a defense against secondary liability claims. For example, a business that sells used books or movie DVDs would not be secondarily liable for copyright infringement when subsequent purchasers use those works, as the first sale doctrine protects the business's resale of those individual copies. However, the first sale doctrine does not protect a party that makes unauthorized copies of a copyrighted work, even if the original work was legally acquired.

Exhaustion of rights is a related concept to the first sale doctrine, which states that once a copyright holder has sold or licensed a particular copy of their work, their rights to control further distribution and use of that specific copy are exhausted. This means that the copyright holder cannot assert further distribution or usage rights over that copy once it has been sold or licensed. Both the first sale doctrine and exhaustion of rights serve as defenses against secondary liability for copyright infringement.

Innocent Infringement and Lack of Knowledge

Innocent infringement is another defense that may be raised against secondary liability claims. This defense applies when an alleged infringer can demonstrate that they were not aware of, and had no reason to believe, that their actions constituted an infringement of a copyrighted work.

To succeed with this defense, the alleged infringer must show that they had a good faith belief that their actions were lawful and that this belief was reasonable under the circumstances. Factors that may be relevant to the reasonableness of the belief include the infringer's level of sophistication, the nature of the work, its reproduction or use, and the degree to which the infringement is attributable to actions of the alleged infringer or a third party.

This defense of innocent infringement and lack of knowledge assumes a critical significance in secondary liability cases because one of the key elements of proving secondary liability is establishing that the defendant had knowledge of the direct infringement. If the defendant can demonstrate that they were unaware of the infringing activities, they may be able to avoid liability for secondary infringement.

Safe Harbor Provisions and DMCA

Safe harbor provisions under the DMCA provide a shield for certain online service providers (OSPs) against liability for copyright infringement claims based on the infringing activities of their users or subscribers. To qualify for safe harbor protections, OSPs must meet several requirements, including:

  • Adopting, reasonably implementing, and informing subscribers of a policy to terminate accounts of repeat infringers;
  • Designating an agent to receive notifications of claimed infringement;
  • Complying with the notice-and-takedown procedure established by the DMCA;
  • Accommodating and not interfering with standard technical measures used by copyright owners to protect their works; and
  • Lacking actual knowledge of infringing activities or, upon obtaining such knowledge, acting expeditiously to remove or disable access to the infringing material.

If an OSP meets these requirements, it can successfully defend against secondary liability claims by invoking the safe harbor protections offered by the DMCA. These defenses are particularly important for online platforms that host user-generated content, as they often face potential secondary liability for copyright infringement committed by their users.

Remedies and Enforcement Actions against Secondary Liability

Secondary liability is a legal principle that holds an individual or entity accountable for the direct infringement of another party. In the world of intellectual property, secondary liability can manifest through vicarious liability (a party benefits from the infringement) and contributory infringement (a party knowingly enables or contributes to the infringement). Though the secondary party may not be directly responsible for the infringement, they can still face legal consequences. This article will explore the different remedies and enforcement actions available against secondary liability in intellectual property cases.

Injunctions and Cease-and-Desist Orders

Injunctions are court orders that require a party to either perform a specific act or abstain from a specific act. In cases of secondary liability, a party found to be vicariously or contributorily infringing may be subject to an injunction requiring them to stop their involvement in the infringing activities. Additionally, a cease-and-desist order may be issued by a court, or in some cases, by an administrative body. This order demands an individual or entity stop their illegal activities and refrain from future infringement.

Injunctions and cease-and-desist orders are often the first enforcement action in a case involving secondary liability. These remedies serve to immediately halt the infringing behavior and protect the intellectual property rights holder's interests. Failure to comply with an injunction or cease-and-desist order can lead to further legal action, including contempt of court charges and monetary penalties.

Monetary Damages and Profits

Monetary damages can be awarded to the intellectual property rights holder in cases of secondary liability. These damages can include compensatory damages for the financial loss suffered by the rights holder as a result of the infringement, as well as statutory damages in certain cases. Additionally, a court may order the secondary infringer to disgorge any profits directly attributable to the infringement. This serves as a deterrent to future infringing behavior and ensures that the infringer does not benefit financially from their illegal actions.

In some cases, the court may also award punitive damages, which are intended to punish the infringer for their actions and deter others from engaging in similar behavior. The severity of the infringement, the infringer's level of intent, and the financial impact on the rights holder are all factors that can influence the amount of damages awarded.

Attorneys' Fees and Costs

In intellectual property cases involving secondary liability, the court may also award the prevailing party their attorneys' fees and related litigation costs. This reimbursement can provide financial relief to the rights holder who has been forced to spend considerable resources defending their intellectual property. However, this remedy is not always granted, and its availability varies depending on the laws of the jurisdiction in which the case is being heard.

Awarding attorneys' fees and costs can also serve to discourage parties from engaging in illicit activities that infringe on others' intellectual property rights, as they may become liable for the substantial costs associated with defending against such claims.

Destruction of Infringing Goods

In some cases, the court may order the seizure and destruction of goods that were found to infringe upon another party's intellectual property rights. This remedy seeks to ensure that the wrongful products are no longer available for distribution. It also serves as a strong deterrent to future infringement, as the secondary party would face the financial loss associated with the destruction of their goods.

Destruction of goods can also have an impact on the public's perception of the infringing party, serving as a warning against future cases of infringement and demonstrating the seriousness with which the courts view these offenses.

In conclusion, there are various remedies and enforcement actions available to address secondary liability in intellectual property cases. These actions range from injunctions and cease-and-desist orders to monetary damages and the destruction of infringing goods. The aim of these remedies is to protect the rights of the intellectual property holder and deter future infringement. The specific enforcement action taken will depend on the individual case and the severity of the infringement.

1. What is secondary liability for trademark infringement?

Secondary liability for trademark infringement occurs when a party indirectly contributes to or benefits from another party's unauthorized use of a trademark, often by providing essential services to infringers (Schechter, 2014). Examples include landlords allowing infringements on their properties or advertisers knowingly promoting counterfeit goods.

2. What are the types of secondary liability in trademark infringement cases?

There are two main types of secondary liability: contributory infringement and vicarious liability. Contributory infringement involves assisting or facilitating the infringement, whereas vicarious liability occurs when an entity profits from the infringement without directly participating in it (Schechter, 2014).

3. How can a party be held liable for contributory trademark infringement?

A party can be held liable for contributory trademark infringement if they materially contribute to the infringement or induce another to commit the infringement, and they have knowledge or reason to know of the infringement (Schechter, 2014). This typically involves supplying goods or services with awareness of the illicit use.

4. When does vicarious liability arise in trademark infringement cases?

Vicarious liability arises in trademark infringement cases when an entity shares control over, benefits from, or is in a joint-venture relationship with the direct infringer (Schechter, 2014). Both parties may be held jointly and severally liable, meaning they share responsibility for damages or remedies.

5. What defenses are available against a claim of secondary liability for trademark infringement?

Defenses against secondary liability for trademark infringement include lack of knowledge of the infringement, good faith attempts to prevent infringement, and fair use (Schechter, 2014). These defenses seek to demonstrate an absence of intent or reasonable steps taken to avoid contributing to the infringement.

6. How can businesses minimize their risk of secondary liability for trademark infringement?

Businesses can minimize their risk of secondary liability by conducting due diligence for potential trademark issues, implementing preventive policies, monitoring third-party use of their trademarks, and promptly addressing any instances of infringement they become aware of (Schechter, 2014). Cooperation with law enforcement also plays an important role in risk management. Reference: Schechter, R. E. (2014). Intellectual property: The law of copyrights, patents, and trademarks. Wolters Kluwer Law & Business.