Trademarks are pivotal assets for businesses, serving as distinctive symbols that differentiate their goods and services from those of competitors. As companies expand beyond their local markets, understanding the geographic scope of trademark protection becomes crucial to safeguarding their brand identity. This article is designed to guide entrepreneurs, legal professionals, and business strategists through the complexities of trademark protection and federal registration of trademarks in common law rights enhancement across different regions and jurisdictions. We will explore the principles of national trademark systems, delve into regional and international frameworks, and examine the impact of trademark classes on geographic scope. Additionally, we will address the enforcement of trademark rights, the challenges posed by the digital marketplace, and strategic considerations for startups navigating the terrain of trademark protection. By the end of this article, readers will be equipped with a comprehensive understanding of how to effectively secure and defend their trademarks on a global scale.

Understanding the Geographic Scope of Trademark Protection

Embarking on the journey of brand protection, startups must first grasp the concept of geographic limitations inherent in trademark law. Trademark rights are established on a national basis, adhering to the principle of territoriality. This means that a trademark registered in the United States, for instance, does not extend its protective reach into France or Japan. Each nation operates its own trademark registry, and businesses must pursue registration within every jurisdiction where they seek to safeguard their brand.

The pathway to national trademark registration is typically multi-faceted, beginning with a comprehensive search to confirm the mark's uniqueness, followed by the submission of an application to the country's appropriate authority. An opposition period may also be part of the process, during which time third parties can contest the registration. Once successfully registered, the trademark owner gains the exclusive right to use the mark within that nation's borders, which serves to prevent consumer confusion by dissuading others from using a similar mark.

For startups with a vision beyond their home country's boundaries, securing a trademark domestically is merely the initial step. Expanding protection requires an exploration of regional and international trademark frameworks, which will be discussed in subsequent sections. National trademarks are the cornerstone for building a robust strategy to shield a brand on a global stage.

Principle of Territoriality and Registration Process

The principle of territoriality stands as a cornerstone of trademark law, asserting that trademark rights are specific to each country. A trademark registered in one nation holds no sway in another, which poses a strategic challenge for startups: to fortify their brand in various markets, they must engage with each nation's unique trademark system and secure registration accordingly.

Navigating the registration process within a country generally unfolds through several critical stages:

  1. Trademark Search: Conducting an exhaustive search for existing trademarks is a wise precaution to ensure the proposed mark does not infringe on another's rights. This step reduces the risk of legal challenges and increases the likelihood of a smooth registration process.
  2. Application Submission: The next move is to file an application with the nation's intellectual property office, detailing the trademark, the associated goods or services, and any distinctive features such as logos or taglines.
  3. Examination: The trademark office scrutinizes the application to ensure it aligns with national laws, assessing the mark's distinctiveness, the potential for confusion with existing marks, and any grounds for refusal.
  4. Publication for Opposition: Should the mark clear the examination phase, it is typically published, allowing third parties to voice opposition if they believe their rights are infringed or if there are other grounds for objection.
  5. Registration: Absent any opposition, or if any raised objections are resolved, the trademark is registered, bestowing upon the startup the exclusive right to use the mark in commerce for the goods and services specified.
  6. Renewal: To maintain trademark rights, which can potentially last indefinitely, timely renewal is essential. The frequency of renewal varies by country, and it is incumbent upon trademark owners to adhere to these intervals.

Startups should weave the principle of territoriality into their brand strategy tapestry from the outset. The timing and breadth of national trademark registrations must be in concert with the company's growth trajectory and market entry plans. Without securing registration within a target country, startups lack the legal framework to challenge the use of their mark by others, which could dilute their brand's integrity and value.

Regional and International Trademark Protection

Expanding beyond the confines of a single nation, businesses can safeguard their brands on a broader scale through regional and international frameworks. These systems facilitate the extension of trademark protection to encompass multiple territories, streamlining the registration process and potentially diminishing the expenses and complexities associated with securing rights in each individual country.

Regional trademark frameworks are born out of treaties that bind countries within a specific locale. Through these systems, an applicant can submit a solitary application that may grant protection across the entire region. For instance, the African Regional Intellectual Property Organization (ARIPO) empowers businesses to protect their trademarks in a swath of African nations, while the Benelux Office for Intellectual Property (BOIP) caters to Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.

On the international stage, the Madrid Protocol emerges as a pivotal tool for brand protection in over 120 countries. This system, orchestrated by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), allows for a singular international application that can be extended to any number of member countries. This international registration dovetails with national trademark systems, providing a registration that is tantamount to a national application in each designated country.

While these regional and international avenues offer expansive protection, they are designed to complement, not replace, national registrations. Businesses, particularly startups, may opt to solidify their brand's standing in their domestic market before pursuing broader horizons, or they might directly engage with these wider-reaching systems, aligning with their strategic vision for market engagement.

Regional Systems: European Union Trade Mark (EUTM) and Beyond

The European Union Trade Mark (EUTM) stands as a paragon of regional trademark systems, offering a unified solution for brand protection across the EU. By filing a single application with the European Union Intellectual Property Office (EUIPO), businesses can secure their trademarks throughout all EU member states. This consolidated approach spares the need for multiple filings, streamlining the legal process and reducing costs.

To qualify for an EUTM, trademarks must meet EU-wide standards of distinctiveness and non-descriptiveness, and they must not infringe on pre-existing marks. Successful registration confers exclusive rights to the trademark holder for the specified goods or services across the EU's expanse.

While the EUTM is an invaluable asset for entities targeting the European market, it does not extend to territories outside the EU. For coverage in these areas, businesses may need to explore other regional systems or pursue individual national registrations. Other regional systems, such as the Organisation Africaine de la Propriété Intellectuelle (OAPI) for French-speaking African countries, offer similar benefits within their respective regions.

The decision to navigate through national, regional, or international trademark registration systems should be informed by a company's unique market approach. Factors such as the scale of operations, target market geography, and plans for future growth should be weighed to determine the most advantageous route for trademark protection. Each business's journey is distinct, and crafting a trademark strategy requires a thoughtful analysis of the enterprise's specific goals and market positioning.

International Trademark Registration via the Madrid Protocol

The Madrid Protocol stands as a cornerstone treaty in the realm of international trademark law, offering a streamlined approach for businesses to protect their brands across borders. By submitting a single application through their national trademark office, companies can seek protection in over 120 countries that are party to the Protocol. This system, overseen by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), simplifies the process of obtaining international trademark protection.

Once the international application is filed, businesses can designate the countries in which they wish to secure their trademark rights. WIPO conducts a preliminary review before dispatching the application to each chosen country for further examination under their respective trademark laws.

For burgeoning enterprises, the Madrid Protocol is a boon, offering cost savings, administrative convenience, and a simplified process. The centralized management of trademark applications means that any modifications, such as ownership transfers or address updates, need only be submitted once to WIPO to take effect in all designated countries.

However, it's imperative for businesses to understand the central attack vulnerability: the international registration's dependence on the home country's trademark status for the first five years. Any adverse action on the home trademark during this period could reverberate internationally, potentially undermining the entire portfolio.

While the Madrid Protocol paves the way for an expansive brand presence, it does not ensure automatic acceptance in every territory, as each member country retains the authority to refuse a trademark based on its local regulations. Ultimately, the national or regional offices hold the keys to the final approval.

For startups eyeing the global market, navigating the Madrid Protocol can be a strategic step towards securing their brand's international footprint, laying the groundwork for recognition and defense against infringement in diverse markets.

Trademark Classes and Their Impact on Geographic Scope

The categorization of goods and services into trademark classes is a fundamental aspect of trademark protection, shaping the extent to which a brand is safeguarded. The Nice Classification system, which is recognized worldwide, organizes these into 45 distinct classes. A business must carefully select the classes that align with its offerings when applying for a trademark.

While these classes are standardized and employed across various trademark systems, including the EUTM and the Madrid Protocol, the actual protection conferred can differ from one jurisdiction to another. It is essential for businesses to meticulously register their trademark in the relevant classes in each territory to ensure comprehensive protection.

The interplay between the selected trademark classes and the geographical reach of protection is particularly significant for businesses with international aspirations. Startups must integrate this understanding into their trademark strategy to ensure their intellectual property is robustly defended as they enter new markets.

The strategic selection of trademark classes is a critical factor in the global protection of a startup's brand. It requires a forward-looking approach, considering both current operations and potential future expansions, to ensure that the brand is adequately protected in all relevant markets. This careful consideration of trademark classes can greatly influence the geographic scope of protection and is an essential component of a startup's overall intellectual property strategy.

Choosing Appropriate Trademark Classes

Selecting the right trademark classes is a pivotal step for startups to safeguard their intellectual property effectively. The Nice Classification system categorizes goods and services into 45 distinct classes, and pinpointing the relevant ones is crucial for comprehensive protection. This selection process is not just about the present but also anticipates future business avenues, ensuring that all potential areas are covered.

A meticulous evaluation of the startup's current and prospective product lines and services is essential to identify the classes that warrant protection. Missing a pertinent class can leave a gap for competitors to exploit, potentially resulting in market confusion or legal disputes. Startups should aim for a balance, securing broad coverage in areas central to their business while avoiding unnecessary registrations that don't align with their market trajectory.

When a startup's offerings span several classes, registration in each applicable category is imperative. Insightful analysis of industry trends and competitors' trademark registrations can shed light on strategic class choices. Additionally, ancillary offerings, such as promotional items or digital services, may necessitate protection under supplementary classes.

Expert guidance from trademark attorneys is often crucial in navigating the complexities of class selection. Their expertise can help tailor a trademark strategy that aligns with the unique contours of the business, preventing expensive oversights. As the startup evolves, ongoing monitoring and renewal of trademark classes are vital to ensure the brand's defense adapts alongside the business's growth. A well-conceived trademark class strategy can act as a bulwark for a startup's brand, laying the groundwork for enduring success both at home and abroad.

Enforcing Trademark Rights Across Borders

The enforcement of trademark rights is a cornerstone of maintaining a brand's integrity, especially as a business extends its reach beyond domestic borders. Navigating the complexities of international trademark protection demands a keen understanding of diverse legal systems and the ability to tailor enforcement strategies to each jurisdiction's unique landscape.

While international frameworks like the Madrid Protocol streamline the registration process, the enforcement of these rights remains subject to the individual laws of each member country. Enforcement tactics can vary significantly, from drafting cease-and-desist letters to engaging in intricate legal battles, with potential remedies including financial restitution, confiscation of counterfeit merchandise, or injunctions against further infringement.

Strategic allocation of resources is critical, particularly for startups with limited budgets. The costs associated with enforcement must be weighed against the significance of the trademark and the infringement's impact on the business. Often, effective enforcement involves partnerships with local authorities and legal experts who bring a nuanced understanding of their home trademark systems.

In today's digital age, enforcement also means engaging with online platforms to remove unauthorized listings. While the digital landscape presents new enforcement challenges, it also offers tools for trademark owners to protect their rights, such as reporting mechanisms for intellectual property violations on many e-commerce sites.

Developing a proactive international trademark enforcement strategy is essential for startups. Such a strategy not only prepares them for registering their trademarks but also for defending and upholding their value in the global marketplace.

Domestic Enforcement Measures

In the realm of trademark protection, safeguarding a brand starts at home. The arsenal for domestic enforcement is diverse, with legal and administrative tools tailored to the specific legal environment of the trademark holder's country.

For startups encountering possible infringement on their home turf, the initial step often involves dispatching a cease-and-desist letter to the alleged infringer. This cost-conscious measure can effectively communicate the seriousness of the infringement and may deter further unauthorized use without resorting to legal action.

Should the infringement continue, the next recourse may involve the judiciary. In many legal systems, this process begins with seeking an injunction to immediately halt the infringing actions. Subsequent litigation could aim to recover damages and secure an order for the destruction or forfeiture of counterfeit merchandise.

Proactive enforcement also plays a critical role. By keeping a watchful eye on new trademark applications, businesses can oppose filings that threaten their established trademarks, leveraging the examination process to their advantage.

Customs and Border Protection agencies also contribute to enforcement efforts, with the authority to intercept and eliminate counterfeit goods at the border. This is particularly crucial for businesses dealing with tangible products that may infringe upon their registered trademarks.

It's vital for startups to understand that vigorous and consistent enforcement is key to preserving a brand's integrity and value. Neglecting to enforce can lead to dilution or even genericide, stripping a trademark of its unique identity and legal safeguards.

The effectiveness of these domestic measures hinges on the robustness of local laws and their execution. Startups should thus immerse themselves in the legal nuances of their home country and devise an enforcement strategy that aligns with these laws. Such strategies should be adaptable, ready to expand as the business grows and ventures into new markets.

International Enforcement Challenges

Venturing into international trademark enforcement introduces a complex web of challenges, demanding a nuanced understanding of diverse legal systems. This multifaceted process extends beyond the familiar territory of domestic law, requiring adaptability to a plethora of legal environments.

The patchwork of international trademark laws is a primary obstacle. Despite efforts at harmonization through treaties like the Madrid Protocol, the enforcement of trademark rights ultimately falls under the jurisdiction of local laws, leading to unpredictable outcomes.

Cultural nuances, language differences, and varied legal doctrines can further muddle international enforcement efforts. These factors may lead to disparate interpretations of infringement and trademark rights, complicating the landscape for startups seeking to shield their intellectual property.

The financial aspect of international enforcement is daunting, especially for startups with finite resources. The accumulation of legal fees, court costs, and translation expenses can be substantial, and the financial strain may not justify the pursuit of enforcement, particularly when the infringement's impact is minimal.

Enforcing judgments across borders presents another hurdle. A favorable ruling in one country does not guarantee recognition or enforcement in another, which is often necessary when confronting international infringers.

The challenge of monitoring for infringement also intensifies on a global scale. Keeping an eye on unauthorized trademark use worldwide is a formidable task, often requiring the assistance of specialized monitoring services. The digital realm adds another layer of complexity, with online infringements capable of emerging from any corner of the globe.

Startups must therefore prioritize their enforcement efforts, focusing on key markets and weighing the potential return on investment. Engaging with local counsel who grasp the intricacies of each jurisdiction's enforcement mechanisms can provide strategic insights and optimize resource allocation.

Approaching international enforcement requires a strategic balance, harmonizing ambition with practicality to effectively extend a brand's protective reach across international borders.

Internet's Influence on Trademark Geographic Scope

The digital revolution has reshaped the terrain of trademark protection, transcending the once-clear-cut national boundaries. In the pre-internet era, trademarks were generally restricted to the marketplaces of their registration. Now, the internet's vast reach allows a brand to gain global exposure almost immediately upon launching online.

This virtual expansion has broadened the scope of trademark protection. A business may find its brand gaining traction in territories where it has never physically marketed its products or services, thanks to the border-dissolving nature of the web. Consequently, the question of jurisdiction becomes complex when a trademark, not formally registered in a particular country, gains recognition there through digital channels.

The role of search engines and social media in amplifying a brand's reach cannot be overstated. Keywords, domain names, and online advertising can inadvertently or deliberately target consumers worldwide, presenting novel challenges in managing a brand's digital footprint and defending against potential infringements.

As commerce continues to globalize through online platforms, the task of enforcing trademark rights becomes increasingly intricate, especially when dealing with infringers who operate from the anonymity of the internet. This new reality calls for a refreshed approach to trademark protection, one that acknowledges the internet's disregard for geographical limits. For startups, this means adopting a vigilant stance on safeguarding their brands in the digital marketplace, which requires strategic planning and continuous vigilance.

Addressing Online Infringement

Confronting the issue of online trademark infringement requires startups to be agile and resourceful. The internet is rife with potential violations, from the misuse of trademarks in domain names and social media handles to their unauthorized appearance in online advertisements and marketplace listings.

Proactive measures include leveraging the enforcement policies of digital platforms. Major online marketplaces, social networks, and search engines have established protocols for reporting and resolving intellectual property disputes, offering a more expedient and cost-effective alternative to traditional legal routes.

Beyond these platform-specific remedies, startups can assert their rights through national legislation designed to combat online infringement. For instance, the United States' Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act provides recourse for domain name issues.

Routine surveillance of the internet is crucial, with many businesses turning to sophisticated software that scans for trademark infringements. These tools can swiftly identify potential violations and notify the trademark holder, enabling prompt action.

Initial responses to infringement typically involve cease-and-desist letters to the offending parties. Should these measures prove ineffective, escalating to formal legal proceedings may be necessary, seeking court-ordered injunctions and financial restitution.

It's also prudent for startups to secure trademark registration in strategic locations, particularly where online infringement risks are high. While registration alone won't prevent all unauthorized use, it fortifies the legal standing of a business when confronting such issues.

Given that online infringement is not confined by physical borders, startups must consider a global enforcement strategy, taking into account both their customer base and the legal reach of different jurisdictions. A vigilant and proactive stance in online brand protection is essential to uphold the integrity and value of a startup's trademark in the expansive digital landscape.

Domain Names and Online Brand Protection

In the digital realm, domain names are pivotal to a brand's identity and its protection is paramount. A domain that echoes a startup's trademark not only fortifies brand recognition but also poses risks of exploitation. Cybersquatting is one such risk, where individuals register domain names featuring trademarks to later sell them at exorbitant prices to the rightful trademark holders.

Startups must act swiftly to secure domain names that align with their trademarks across a spectrum of top-level domains (TLDs). This strategy should encompass the well-known .com and .net, as well as country-specific TLDs (ccTLDs) and the newer generic TLDs (gTLDs) that resonate with their business. Prompt registration of these domains can thwart the efforts of those who might otherwise capitalize on the startup's brand reputation.

When faced with cybersquatting, startups have recourse through the Uniform Domain-Name Dispute-Resolution Policy (UDRP), overseen by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). This policy provides a streamlined avenue for trademark owners to contest domain registrations and potentially reclaim domains without resorting to legal proceedings. The UDRP is a globally acknowledged framework, offering a swift and cost-effective alternative to litigation.

Vigilant monitoring of online brand representation is crucial, extending beyond domain names to include any usage of similar or identical terms that could potentially mislead consumers or weaken the brand's impact. Startups can employ monitoring services that provide alerts for new domain registrations that may infringe on their trademarks.

In addition to proactive registration and vigilant monitoring, startups can educate their customer base on how to identify authentic websites, thereby reducing the risk of traffic being diverted to unauthorized sites. Implementing digital certificates, such as SSL, further authenticates and secures a startup's website, reinforcing customer trust.

Securing the right domain names and protecting them against misappropriation is a cornerstone of a robust online brand protection strategy. Startups must prioritize this aspect to ensure the integrity and recognition of their brand in the digital marketplace.

Strategic Trademark Considerations for Startups

Trademarks represent more than legal safeguards for startups; they are vital business assets that necessitate strategic foresight and judicious planning. The way a trademark is positioned can significantly impact market presence, customer perception, and the overall value of a brand, all of which are instrumental in a startup's growth.

Startups must ensure their trademark strategy is in harmony with their business model and future aspirations. By pinpointing the primary offerings and potential expansion areas, startups can make enlightened choices about trademark registration locales and the classes of trademarks to focus on. Such forward-thinking can stave off unnecessary costs and disputes that might otherwise detract from the company's core mission.

Awareness of a trademark's lifecycle is also essential. As a startup's brand evolves, its trademark registrations may need to be reassessed and updated. This includes staying on top of renewals and declarations of use to keep trademark protections in force.

Moreover, the message a trademark communicates should resonate with the intended audience across various cultures, especially when considering international markets. It's crucial to contemplate the cultural implications and translational nuances of trademarks to avoid any unforeseen barriers or negative associations.

Startups should also scrutinize the competitive landscape, conducting thorough searches to sidestep potential infringements and determine where trademark protection can provide a strategic edge. Such due diligence enables a startup to strategically position its trademarks, creating a bulwark against competitors who may seek to encroach on their market share or weaken their brand identity.

In addition, startups must weave their online branding strategies into their trademark considerations, ensuring uniformity and protection across digital platforms, including social media and e-commerce. This includes aligning domain name strategies, search engine optimization (SEO), and digital marketing efforts with trademark rights.

By weaving these strategic elements into their broader business strategies, startups can effectively secure and exploit their trademark rights, bolstering their position for success in the dynamic and competitive business landscape.

Costs vs. Benefits of Geographic Protection

Navigating the landscape of geographic trademark protection presents a unique set of financial considerations for startups. Each country or region where a startup seeks to register its trademark brings its own set of costs, including official filing fees, potential legal representation expenses, and, when necessary, translation services for applications in non-native languages. Additionally, startups must be prepared for the financial implications of defending their trademarks, which may include opposition proceedings and subsequent enforcement costs.

On the flip side, the benefits of securing trademarks in strategic locations are manifold. A trademark serves as a powerful tool to ward off infringement, ensuring that the startup has exclusive rights to the mark in connection with its products or services. This exclusivity is not only a deterrent to unauthorized use but also a critical factor in forging relationships with retailers and distributors, as well as in establishing a strong, recognizable brand identity.

The decision to extend trademark protection must be informed by a startup's immediate operational footprint and its aspirations for market expansion. If the likelihood of significant sales or brand penetration in a particular region is minimal, the investment in trademark protection there may not be justifiable. Conversely, for markets with a high potential for revenue or brand impact, the investment in trademark protection could prove invaluable.

Startups must also weigh the implications of their digital footprint. With e-commerce platforms providing global reach, it is essential to consider where online consumers are based and how that influences the need for trademark protection in various jurisdictions.

A prudent approach for startups is to prioritize robust trademark protection in their domestic market and other primary areas of interest. As the business scales, the scope of trademark protection can be expanded in tandem with market reach and revenue growth. By carefully assessing the costs and benefits, startups can allocate resources to trademark registrations that bolster their brand and support their expansion goals.

Integrating Trademark Strategy with Business Objectives

For startups on the cusp of growth, weaving trademark strategy into the fabric of business objectives is crucial. A strategic approach to trademarks can amplify business goals, safeguard against risks, and enhance the company's market value.

Identifying the target demographic and pinpointing the goods or services at the core of the business are the first steps in crafting a trademark strategy that aligns with market entry plans. This foresight enables startups to secure protection in relevant classes and territories, laying the groundwork for market penetration.

Considering the future trajectory of the business is also vital. A forward-thinking trademark strategy might involve broader protection to accommodate potential new offerings, thus avoiding future conflicts or the need for rebranding. Vigilant monitoring for trademark availability and potential disputes as the business evolves is key to avoiding expensive legal entanglements.

Trademarks are valuable assets that can significantly influence a startup's valuation during critical junctures such as fundraising or acquisition talks. A robust portfolio of trademarks can be a testament to a company's potential and stability.

Consistency in branding across all platforms is essential as a startup expands. A well-defined trademark strategy ensures that every interaction with the brand reinforces its identity, fostering brand recognition and customer loyalty.

Moreover, aligning marketing initiatives with trademark protection is essential. Marketers need to be cognizant of the extent of trademark rights to prevent encroaching on another's intellectual property. Collaboration between legal and marketing teams is paramount to ensure that promotional activities enhance the brand without overstepping legal protections.

Finally, a comprehensive understanding of the competitive landscape is integral to a startup's trademark strategy. Awareness of where competitors have secured trademarks can reveal market opportunities or potential legal hurdles.

Incorporating trademark considerations into business planning equips startups with a robust framework for brand protection, ensuring that their intellectual property strategy is in lockstep with their overarching business goals.

1. What is the concept of geographic scope in trademark protection?

The geographic scope in trademark protection refers to the geographical region or jurisdiction where a particular trademark is recognized and protected (Trademark in the Digital Age, 2015). Each jurisdiction has its own set of trademark laws.

2. How does the geographic scope relate to international trademark laws?

International trademark laws operate according to the Principle of Territoriality, which implies that trademark rights typically extend only within the territorial boundaries of the registering country (Davis, 2017). Hence, the geographic scope is inherent to international trademark laws.

3. Does a U.S. trademark protect a brand globally?

No. Trademark protection laws in the United States protect trademark rights only within U.S. borders (USPTO, 2021). International protection requires filing applications in each country where protection is desired.

4. What are international trademark registrations such as the Madrid Protocol?

International registrations like the Madrid Protocol allow a trademark holder to protect their mark in multiple member countries by filing a single international application (WIPO, 2020). This simplifies the international protection process significantly.

5. How does the Trademark Law Treaty impact the geographic scope of trademark protection?

The Trademark Law Treaty standardizes and simplifies national and regional trademark registration procedures, thereby potentially expanding the geographical scope of a trademark's protection (WIPO, 2021).

6. Can businesses enforce their trademark protections overseas?

Businesses can enforce their trademark protections overseas, but only in the countries where the trademarks have been registered and are recognised. These enforcements generally require legal proceedings in each specific country (Davis, 2017). References: Davis, J. (2017). A company's guide to protecting its trademark. American Bar Association. Trademark in the Digital Age. (2015). United Nations Public Administration Network. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. (2021). Protecting your trademark. United States Department of Commerce. World Intellectual Property Organization. (2020). Madrid – The International Trademark System. WIPO. World Intellectual Property Organization. (2021). Trademark law treaty. WIPO.